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Perineal Injury and Maternity Practices in Ireland
consumer issues |
Monday October 17, 2011 14:58 by Tracy Donegan
Pelvic Floor injury in Ireland today
Pelvic floor injury is not a given in childbirth. Mums can stack the odds in their favour of emerging from childbirth whole, healthy and intact.
Perineal trauma in Ireland has become
so common place that women almost expect that they will need some
'help' in this last very important part of birth. Hollywood has
us convinced that all that purple faced pushing is normal. The 2nd
stage of labour becomes a frantic race to get the baby out as quickly
as possible – suggesting to women that their own body is a danger
to their baby. But hang on a minute - your body has grown your baby
from 2 cells to a perfect baby...knowing exactly where each
fingernail should be placed....where your baby's tiny ears should be
placed....down the the perfect number of hair follicles on your
baby's head...with no conscious input from you.....no 'fetus growing'
classes...just the intelligence and wisdom of your body. Your body
knows how to finish the process.
Most of the women I
work with who have had serious ongoing complications of incontinence
have had traumatic births - in many cases it involves an assisted
delivery with forceps or vacuum. As perineal injury becomes
'normalised' we are losing sight of how physically and
psychologically debilitating a damaged pelvic floor can be in day to
day life and in a woman's relationships with her partner. In
many maternity hospitals the mother simply receives a referral to a
physiotherapist to help her with the physical recovery but the
emotional recovery and mental health issues (including depression)
are not seen as being equally important. Day to day living can be a
nightmare for these women especially if they are experiencing faecal
as well as urinary incontinence. These professional, healthy,
young women have no control over their bowels and end up prisoners of
their own homes and nobody is talking about it. Try to tell those
women that the hospitals have no choice...that they have to have
polices in place to speed up birth due to underfunding,
understaffing, babybooms and the erroneous beliefs that the Mother's
body is a risk to her baby.
Sadly some women feel it was
partly their fault because they couldn't 'push' properly or were too
uptight and couldn't 'let go'. So let me start off by stating that
your body works – infact your body ROCKS!. Your body
knew exactly what to do. You weren't too 'uptight' or had issues with
letting go. Your body did not fail you - our maternity
practices most certainly did. Even the most skilled yoga mums and the
most laid back relaxed hypnomums are faced with the most harmful
intervention in current obstetrics - not the forceps - but the
clock. What most Irish mothers don't realise is that they are
on a time limit from the moment they are 'diagnosed' to be in labour
until the placenta is delivered - the clock is ticking. There
is no evidence to support these arbitrary time limits but we have
nearly 30,000 births between the 3 Dublin hospitals each year and
only 30 delivery beds........do the math. What do you think
that will mean for a first time Mother?
typical scenario that plays out in our hospitals every day.
Mum is managing well - baby is healthy and coping
well with labour.
Mum has 2 hourly VE (vaginal exams) to ensure
she is dilating with the hospitals guideline of 1cm per hour (there is no
evidence to support 2 hour VEs)
Around 7cm (sometimes even at
10cm) Mums labour slows down as her body rests as her baby rotates
into the optimal position
Mum is deemed to have inefficient
uterine action and is prescribed the pitocin drip and her are waters
broken (there is no evidence to support this)
Mum is now on continuous
monitoring due to the administration of Pitocin.
Mum is finding it
more difficult to cope with the chemically driven contractions that
give her and her baby little or no rest between.
Baby finds it
harder to recover from the intense, longer chemically driven
contractions and is now showing late decels on the CTG.
Mum is now
10cm and baby is showing signs of distress due to the
Additional staff enter the room and Mum is instructed to lie
on her back and pull her knees up to her chest as 2 Midwives shout at
her to hold her breath and push into her bum (whether she has any
urge to push or not). Sometimes a Midwife will tell a Mother to
'get angry with her baby'.
Prolonged breath holding further
restricts oxygen to her baby which again shows baby in distress and a
decision is made for an assisted delivery.
An episiotomy is
performed and vacuum applied - vacuum fails and forceps applied.
is born limp and has low APGARS due to hypoxia (lack of oxygen).
is in a state of shock but thankful that her baby was 'saved'
notes read - 'FTP' - failure to progress and reluctantly accepts
that this was her fault.
Nobody told this Mother that holding her breath for long periods of time was putting her baby at risk. Nobody told her that 'purple pushing' could damage not only her baby, but her bladder, her pelivc floor and perineum. In fact the antenatal classes encouraged it and other women told her to 'listen to your Midwife - she'll show you how to push'.
Current evidence and
international best practice would suggest that this was a case of
'failure to wait' rather than failure to progress. In my
experience there are several factors that increase the risk of
perineal/pelvic floor damage in Irish women.
1 - Arbitrary
time limits (time limits mean more assisted deliveries)
3 - Overuse of episiotomies - NMH has an
episiotomy rate of 43% for first time mothers. Wexford's rate
is only 8% and the MLU in Drogheda is 5%. Evidence does
not support the use of routine episiotomies.
4 - Overuse of
epidurals and underuse of hydrotherapy (water immersion is associated
with lower perineal damage)
There are a number of studies comparing coached vs spontaneous pushing In 2003 the WHO recommended removing coached pushing from practice. Research from 1957 describes the damage to the muscles of the vagina and support ligaments after coached pushing so the new research is reaffirming what we already knew to be the case - that 'purple pushing' is harmful for women and their babies and the more Mums can educate themselves about Irish maternity practices the better. I often hear Mums say not to focus on the birth as it's 'just one day'.....but that's not the case for those women who are living with incontinence for the rest of their lives. Information is power.
My recommendations are the
same to all women whether they have have had previous trauma to the
pelvic floor or are first time Mums. It's so important
that women understand how the 2nd stage actually works. That
it's a reflex...when your baby's head triggers Fergusons reflex your
body automatically starts to nudge your baby down. The top of
the uterus gets thicker and thicker and moves down around your baby -
like a tube of toothpaste. When you think of how our body works
when we feel sick and vomit. Your body throws up....so in
labour it's like your body is throwing 'down'. You'd never say
oh I had a dodgy curry last night and was pushing up vomit all
night....you'd say you were throwing up....it's the same with the 2nd
stage....your body does all the work for you.
irresistible urge that you can't ignore. Think of how the bowel works
- pushing when you don't have the urge to push is like me instructing
you now to go and have a bowel movement immediately when you don't
feel the need to go! Think of a time when you really really needed to
go....did you need someone to coach you? Did you need to do
anything else other than sit down and relax? Whether you sit on
the toilet and push for Ireland or bring a book (men are great at
this) the poop still comes out!!! When you think of it how did
humans get born for the thousands of years before Midwives and
Doctors came on the scene? Who is coaching the cows and sheep
in the fields? Women can give birth in a coma...
Practice perineal massage in the
Write your birth preferences down
and discuss antenatally e.g. "I prefer not to have coached
pushing but will push with my own urges"
Have your birth partner advocate
for you in labour if a staff member starts instructing Mum to hold
Ask for more time if you and baby
Choose an upright birth position
especially if you don't have an epidural.
Focus on slow comfortable
breathing - let your body do the work.
If you have an epidural request
additional time for 'passive descent' especially if you and baby are
Labour in water if possible.
Consider a homebirth or giving birth with a Community
Midwives scheme (in 2008 a Swedish study showed a lower frequency of
perineal injury associated with homebirths between 1992 & 2004).
The risk of perineal/pelvic floor damage was 5 times higher in
hospital. Or if possible choose a maternity unit with a low rate of
episiotomies and assisted deliveries to stack the odds in your
favour. Bump2babe.ie has all of the statistics.
Midwife Penny Armstrong describes her experience of episiotomy.
"One becomes accustomed to routines - including cutting of the flesh - and can get in the habit of not questioning their necessity. But if you are not accustomed to it, it is shocking to see vibrant muscle cut. I think of muscles as being strung out on our bones like strings on a cello - vibrating with potential, as if for an extended concert. I dream about a baseball player with his shirt off and the graceful cresting of power tha curves up from teh small of his back, across his shoulders and down his arms. to interrupt that progression of movement is an esthetic crime, and I feel sure we wouldn't do it if it were avoidable. If a professional athlete was on a table in the operating room and if there was no other remedy but surgery, the prospect of cutting his muscles would still be sobering...seeing him prepped and draped, we would know that everything possible had been done....physical therapy, massages, slings...Only then would they resort to the knife. Maybe we don't think of these women's muscles with the same regard because of where they are located. We don't see them crossing and gliding as they make our hips swing; we don't watch them spreading into broad ribbony bands when we squat down. Because we can't see them, maybe we think of them as a static crude vessel fit only for containing entrails, bowels and other oozy organs. Maybe that's what makes them easier to cut... But I have seen the muscles in women. In the delivery room, when the cut was made across three or four major muscle groups, and I've seen them retreat and lie there, shrunk back into themselves, and I felt the same way I would if the athlete's muscles had been cut. The same way I feel when a cellist's string snaps during a concert. The music of the body, the resonance and the potential for rapture are interrupted"