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Voltaire Network
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Voltaire Network >>

IRSCNA: Remember the Paris Commune!

category international | history and heritage | press release author Friday March 18, 2011 07:24author by IRSCNAauthor email irscna at irsm dot org Report this post to the editors

A statement celebrating the 140th anniversary of the Paris Commune.

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

18 March 2011
Irish Republican Socialist Committees of North America

Remember the Paris Commune!

On behalf of the Irish Republican Socialist Movement, the Irish
Republican Socialist Committees of North America issues the following
statement in celebration of the 140th anniversary of the beginning of
the Paris Commune.

The establishment of the Paris Commune in 1871, although short-lived,
was a revolutionary step forward in the history of class struggle and
alternative forms of political administration.

The roots of the Commune lie in the French defeat in the Franco-
Prussian war. The disastrous results of the ruling class's military
campaign coupled with the growing sense of grievance on the part of
workers, which could be seen as early as the 1830s with the revolts
of silk workers in Lyon and Paris, were the tinder for the spark of
revolution to set aflame.

At the time, large numbers of Parisians were members of the National
Guard citizens' militia, and a Central Committee of the National
Guard was formed by republicans and socialists to defend both the
city if necessary and the republican government against the threat of
a royalist restoration after the election of a pro-monarchist
majority.

Fearing the rising power of the Central Committee, French Head of
State Adolphe Thiers ordered troops to seize the cannons of the
National Guard on 18 March 1871. General Claude Martin Lecomte
ordered his troops to open fire on the National Guard and civilians
alike. He was dragged from his horse and later executed, while
regular army soldiers joined with the National Guard and the people
of Paris.

The Central Committee issued a manifesto, which stated: "The
proletarians of Paris, amidst the failures and treasons of the ruling
classes, have understood that the hour has struck for them to save
the situation by taking into their own hands the direction of public
affairs...They have understood that it is their imperious duty, and
their absolute right, to render themselves masters of their own
destinies, by seizing upon the governmental power."

The Central Committee of the National Guard arranged elections for 26
March, and the 92 delegates elected to the Communal Council, a
mixture of reformist republicans and more radical socialists,
proclaimed the Paris Commune on 28 March under the banner of a red
flag.

During the two months of its existence, the Communal Council enacted
such measures as the separation of church and state, making church
property the property of the Commune, the right of employees to take
over and run an enterprise if it were deserted by its owner, the
secularization of education, and in general provided for the
progressive and secular organization of the Commune. Further reforms
to provide free further education and technical training were
proposed but not enacted before the Commune's destruction.

Female Communards formed the Women's Union for the Defense of Paris
and Care of the Injured, which advocated for gender equality in wages
and the right of divorce, and for secular and professional education
for girls and women. Everywhere, the Commune opened new spaces for
workers and other oppressed groups to put forward their own political
demands. Sympathetic uprisings in Lyon, Grenoble, and other cities
created other short-lived Communes, as the fire of revolution was
contagious.

However, as Karl Marx and V.I. Lenin both remarked later, the
Communards failed to capitalize on their success by immediately
taking the fight to the national government and the ruling class.
Precious time was lost, allowing the government to organize a
military campaign to subdue the rebellious city of Paris.

Beginning in April, government forces rallied outside the city walls
of Paris, and began to put pressure on the defenses of the National
Guard. On 21 May, government forces finally entered the city and time
ran out for the Communards.

Street battles were waged for the next week, with some of the
fiercest resistance found in working class districts, but by 28 May
it was all over. The Paris Commune, what Marx described as workers
"storming heaven," had been smashed and the forces of reaction began
their reprisals. Tens of thousands of Communards and their supporters
were executed, including women and children, while thousands were
exiled. Paris remained under martial law for five years.

Despite the destruction of the Paris Commune, it represented the
first embryonic form of the dictatorship of the proletariat. If it
was never a purely socialist revolution and was always beset with the
problems of a hastily created government under external threat, it
was at least a new example of revolutionary organization, the
democratic self-organization of the masses. This remains the enduring
gift handed down by the Communards to the revolutionary workers of
the future, a gift baptized in the blood of martyrs.

As long as the class struggle engendered by the class dictatorship of
capitalism continues, then the Paris Commune will continue to shine
a light on a path to a better world.

In the words of Communard Edouard Vaillant, "If socialism wasn't born
of the Commune, it is from the Commune that dates that portion of
international revolution that no longer wants to give battle in a
city in order to be surrounded and crushed, but which instead wants,
at the head of the proletarians of each and every country, to attack
national and international reaction and put an end to the capitalist
regime."

Onward to victory, workers of the world!

###

Irish Republican Socialist Committees of North America
PO Box 5174
Champaign IL 61825
USA
irscna@irsm.org
http://www.irscna.org/
http://www.irsp.ie/irscna.html

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